Many programs are installed from one installation file that can be downloaded, and hence usually resides in the Downloads folder. This installation file can usually be copied to another computer and be used there.
Running the installation file, usually extracts the program files into more than one folder, sometimes downloads further files into various folders, and writes registry entries. If these are the files you mean (you wrote files), then no. They cannot be transferred to and used in another computer.
We have two options for installation -- online and offline. The offline installer will download all the files you need and doesn't need the Internet to complete the installation, and might be used if you have an offline machine (to give it a layer of protection)