I have experience in photography, but I just had a decent camera thrown into my hands. Now I want to purchase my own camera, and I don't know what specs actually matter (some are obvious, "it has a screen at the back!" most cameras do sweetie....) So what am I looking for, and what does what?
Depends on what you want in a camera. Do you want a quick point & shoot, or do you want something that you can use for better pictures? A lot of people are set on DSLR cameras, although the mirrorless cameras are often just as good if not better for many people who don't want the larger size and complexity of the more advanced cameras. Plus, many mirrorless ones are as good if not better than low-end DSLRs for image quality.
Regardless of whether you go with point & shoot or an interchangeable lens camera, you need to look at sensor size as much if not more than megapixels. Many people think more megapixels means better quality, but in fact that's not always the case if you have a very tiny sensor with umpteen million megapixels. So, pay close attention to the sensors. As far as a screen on the back, those are nice for many applications, but I recently realized the importance of a viewfinder when shooting in very bright light.
With a little more detail many of us can help you identify what you want. I'm fairly new to the photography field, but as is typical of everything I do once I start I read up on things until my eyes hurt and then read up some more. Then, I research the mess out of stuff.