Can you use a Xbox one headset on a laptop?

Depends on the headset and the laptop.

If the headset is dual 3.5mm jacks (one for mic and one for headset), you would need a laptop that has both of those ports as well. An adapter from 2- 3.5mm jacks to go into one input/output combo port may not work. However an adapter of 2- 3.5mm jacks to a USB probably would.

If the laptop only has an output port, then only headphones will work, no mic.