I am having a similar question. Im thinking of getting a 144hz monitor and im not sure if the high refresh rate will work if i connect it to my laptop (acer zenbook pro 15) through a docking station with a usc tybe c thunderbolt 3 cable. Will i still experience the 144 hz that way?
Like H9 said it all depends on what your laptop is capable of. Using it stock no matter what sort of adapter you run it through, you will only get the resolution the video card in the laptop is capable of. It's like hooking a VHS player up to a 4k TV and expecting 4k resolution.
It may be fine even if you don't get the full 144hz. Easiest way to tell is drag your laptop down to a retailer and plug it into a monitor or two.
You may be able to find an external interface to circumvent the existing video card but it's not going to be worth it. Sorry to say it but if you want to be a hard core gamer, buck up and get a system that will do it right. Gaming laptops are a lot more expensive than a tower. Keep your laptop for powerpoint presentations at work and get yourself a box set for gaming with a hot video card that will organically give you the resolution you want and reduce lag.