Unfortunately, no, that is not possible. It doesn't matter what information you have off the unit, unless the serial number happens to be listed on an active police investigation or report, filed INTO their database, and then encountered during the process of some other investigation or the finding of a large number of stolen items, there is no practical way for it to be located.
My advice would be to report it to the police along with your identifying information, and then assume it gone. If they ever find it, great, but I would not expect that to happen because it rarely does.
That won't be of any use.
You should notify the Police in your area and file a report. Some manufacturers (Dell) has a site to report stolen devices and they could help recover them in cooperation with authorities.
Some laptop models have a tracking chip (e.g. Dell Latitude) which could be traced by the manufacturer.
If you use a service like Gmail, at the bottom right-hand corner under Details, you could see the IP address or the laptop last location. You could provide that info to police.
Dropbox displays the the last IP address of each individual computer, under Settings>Security.
Usually, when somebody steals a device, they don't use it as is. They will generally wipe it immediately which negates most of that potential for tracking you mentioned. IF the unit is one with a tracking chip, then perhaps through the manufacturer, if they are willing to do so, it MIGHT be able to be traced. That's pretty shaky though.
If they're smart they do that, but a couple of years ago an idiot stole my Surface and was using it at a McDonald's.
I kept tracking the device location with Google and Microsoft (account.microsoft.com/devices.).
I gave the police the info, I did not want to take any chances confronting him or them.
I kept providing the detective with the IP address and they got him 3 days later in his apartment with more stole property.
Maybe I got lucky.