Several companies make inexpensive USB3 to SATA adapters; StarTech, Anker, Onn (walmart), etc. They're usually like $20.
Remove the drive carefully and connect it to the adapter, and use software like EaseUS Todo Backup to clone the entire disk to a different disk.
A client of mine who has an autistic child had her laptop beaten to high hell and because of the damage, the HDD really suffered, and I ended up cloning the old 500GB Seagate drive to a 500GB Samsung 860 Evo.
Stuff gets old and wears down, nothing you can really do about it.