I'm not aware that such a product exists. And its operation would be quite dependent on communication channels still being operable within the device.
If you have a laptop that won't turn on, adding a card to isn't likely going to net you any information.
If a tool like that did exist, it would be prohibitively expensive for use on a single laptop. Something a professional repair shop would have.
Step zero) Hardware or software? (If software, try a bootable linux distribution to test the hardware) If hardware is suspected, remove all non-necessary devices such as drives, memory (try each stick individually if possible), and expansion cards.
Step one) Verify the power supply, either by using a known working one or testing the output voltage.
Step two) remove battery
Step three) review the built-in diagnostics guide from the manufacturer's manual. There will often be a keyboard shortcut to run a software diagnostics test. (This does rely on some partial functionality of the laptop)
After that, if hardware is still suspected and you really want this laptop to work again, start shopping for replacement motherboards.
It appears that some people are still making POST cards, haven't seen one in the wild in many years. They attempt to communicate to the other devices in a system, but that does rely a bit on the bus they are connected to to be working. So if the PCH isn't good, nothing will work, pretty sure the same goes for the CPU.