Design mainly deal with the high level diagrams on how you will make the program and is not dependant on the language. These generally don't require very fast machines as you spend most of your time drawing diagrams using software.
Coding on the other hand is very specific to the platform that you want to make the program. Different cpus will be needed depending on the intensity of the program you wish to make
I don't code this high up and prefer to usually do all my design's myself unless I need a spreadsheed or i'm making android app's (a huge mistake sometimes, I simply don't like XML) and I tend to learn backwards simply because everything underneath has more access to the actual PC. But looking at the UML section in Visual Studio, i'll answer to the best of my ability,
First off...I have no intention of reading the entire section simply since at a glance it doesn't interest me, so excuse my lack of UML based knowledge. I don't know if your talking from within a language already or simply using a UML tool, but let me say that Visual Studio supports it as code and allows it to integrate into other languages such as C# and the 'General' data types are similar, although the actual usage becomes much more complex especially deeper down such as C/C++.
If you were to say, use Visual Basic (the simplest language IMHO), I think the only real data type issue is going to be with the type of string and adjusting to how they are declared/used, if your expecting simple--don't bet on it, but if your really interested in learning, most general concepts I see are the same. Visual Basic has Boolean, Int, etc. and operators are essentially sub's or function's for user drawn control's except that if you want to change the way they behave by default it won't be a one click solution. I was going to post a comparison for a few languages but I don't know exactly what to compare it too...windows to dos (command prompt) would be my general comparison except modern languages still have a semi click and play aspect.
Boolean is still true/false, Int is still decimal numbers, although there is also something along the lines of 9 other types for numerals in the simple languages depending on size and need's with memory consuption in mind. (memory will not be a concern for quite a while though so don't let me scare you away) you would generally use int or long for most numeric data at first and the language handles the memory concept for you in most cases until much further down.
I hope that at least somewhat answers your question.