After I plugged a mike with a self-contained battery into my asus laptop, all sound went dead. No internal or external mic, no speakers, no headphones. Could the mic have blown an audio fuse, of some sort, within the laptop?
It does not seem to be merely an issue of the external mic being plugged into the ext mic jack, as the problem persists (no audio of any kind) even after unplugging the external mic.
Yes, there could have been damage to the sound card. You can try booting off a Linux Live disk and see if that had sound, it would rule out an issue with software like Windows or drivers.
I should have also mentioned that I'm running Lubuntu 18.04 LTS. As a test comparable to that of your suggestion, I tried booting from a partition containing Ubuntu Studio 14.04 LTS, but there was no difference in behavior.
Also, the microphone in question is an old Sun Microsystems external microphone, internally powered by a CR2032 lithium button cell.
I'm hoping someone might be familiar with specifics of the laptop's sound subsytem, and perhaps aware of a (perhaps) fusible component that might be easier to troubleshoot or replace than the sound chip (I think the chip itself may be allright as, following subsequent reboots, files under /proc/asound/Intel/ continue to provide the identification "ALC882 Analog" for input and output, and "ALC882 Digital" for output, as well as much descriptive info. If the chip had been fried, i'd think the "files" located here would be absent or at least show evidence of corruption of some sort, but they look normal)
In case there might be any diagnostically useful info here that someone else might be better able to interpret than I can, here is the output from catting '/proc/asound/card0/codec#0':
(I don't think the message "No Modem Function Group found" is descriptive of any sound functionality damage, as modem functionality appears to be provided by a different device identified as "Si3054 Modem", described under /proc/asound/Intel/pcm6c.)