I am using Windows 10 on a Toshiba laptop. I have an external DVD drive. When I plug it into the USB port it beeps to let me know that I have utilized the port but never connects to the DVD Drive (No drive letter for it in Explorer)
In addition if I plug my phone into the USB port it will charge my phone but will not access the drive on my phone.
Thumb drives do work on my system though with no problem.
The system I am using is an ASUS. The cable is or Data, and was the one that came with the DVD drive and used to work. It may have stopped working after a Windows Update. I used to also be able to access data from my phone with the same phone and the same cable. I have tried other cables and they do not work as well, yet if I connect to another computer with the exact same cable it works fine.