Start Google Chrome as safe mode, basically find your google chrome shortcut, copy and paste it, right click on the new copied shortcut and click on Properties. You should see the Target (which points to the Google Chrome .exe file). At the end of the string input " --incognito" (including the space before the --incognito and excluding the ""), and click on "Apply" and "OK". Then launch Google Chrome from the newly created shortcut / icon. This should start Google Chrome in incognito (in this case it could be refered to as "safe mode", meaning that add-ons / extensions are disabled. If any installed extensions / add-ons are causing Google Chrome not to launch properly, then this should solve your issue.
If Google Chrome launches, when remove all the extensions and close Google Chrome and reopen it using your old icon / shortcut (not the one which you changed its target). Then reinstall your extensions. If the same issue occurs, then an extension/add-on is incompatible and you have to figure out which one is causing the issue. I also suggest clearing your entire history (ensure that you remember all your saved passwords before removing the history).