Do you have a link tot he product you speak of? My Google Image search reveals that you will need a PCIe PCB breakout unit. I'd also advice against using that since the wiring on them will be different from what you see on a regular USB to USB cable.
Your laptop's documentation also doesn't state that it's Thunderbolt supported which is also why I'd advise against that route too.
No. It will not work.
Because pci e lanes and usb lanes are different and
Usb lanes are connected to PCH(platform control hub) and then processor. And pcie are directly connect to processor. But riser cables (which have usb port) are not actual have usb lanes it have pcie x1 lane on usb cable.
But if you think you can connect via usb to pcie. It is not possible.