If the old phone won't work there is no way to get the data off the phone. If it is on the phone itself. The same goes for if the data was on a SD card that was converted to be "Internal" storage. It was encoded to that device so only that device can read the data on it. However if the SD card was left in its original "External" storage state, then you should be able to just insert it into the other phone to access it.
You can then upload the contents of the SD card to a cloud account or gmail, then once all copied to which ever place, you can then remove the SD card and put in any one you already had in the device. Then redownload the data.