Not without either moving everything you have on the current card to the phone and making it not "Internal" storage again first. Otherwise you will lose access to everything that is on the current card.
Also, if you installed any apps directly to the card. Not having installed them on the phone and then moved them. Then those apps cannot be moved to the phone. They will have to be uninstalled when you move what you can to the phone, and then redownloaded and installed when you make the new card "Internal" storage.
NOTE: The new card can only be the max size (storage capacity) as the phone will allow. So check the specs.
Also, you can save things that are on the card that aren't apps to a cloud account, google account, or a computer rather than moving those back to the phone when you make the change. However, should you not move them, they will be gone.