How do I figure out which technologies (e.g.,devices, services, etc.) I need to either own or have access to in my life, and how to obtain them in the most cost-effective manner?
This is an impossible question to answer. If you live in the Amazon jungle, you need a bow, some leather for shoes and you can get them free by killing things. If you live in Alaska, you would probably need something else.
Really if you manged to live to, say 15, without killing yourself through stupidity, you should have figured out by now what you need and how to get it.