If you have tried cards that work in other devices, then there may be a problem with the port on the phone. There could be dust or debris in it. So I would check for that first. Just be careful you don't damage anything inside the port.
Next make sure that your phone is fully updated. Check for any system updates. And then restart (turn off and back on) the phone.
Then try inserting a SD card that you know works on other devices. Getting a popup or not when inserting isn't important. What is important is if it will now (after doing all the above) will see the card. Check again in "Settings" then "Storage" and see if the inserted card is listed.
If it is, great, you are good to go. However, if it isn't, then it may be a hardware problem rather than a software one. If that is the case you will have to have the device looked at by a tech.