Solved! Dell Latitude E5540 only recognizes the power cord when the battery is removed. Won't charge.

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Nov 5, 2019
I’m upgrading a Dell Latitude E5540 to an SSD
Brand new 512GB SSD
2x4GB DDR3L-1600 RAM
Windows 10 Professional, fresh install

The power adapter has a blue LED ring around the end that turns on when plugged in - this stays consistent.
When the battery is connected the laptop will power on and run fine however, the charger isn’t being recognized as being plugged in.
If I disconnect the battery, while the cord is still plugged in, the laptop will immediately power off.
If I have the power cord plugged in with no battery, the laptop will run on external power, no problem.
If I connect the battery while it is plugged in, the operating system will switch to battery power and stop recognizing the power adapter. This is both with the installed Windows 10 and Linux Mint (Live).
While powered off, with the battery connected, when I plug in the power cord, the battery charging indicator light on the laptop will come on for 3 seconds, then turn off.

I have done the following with no change in behavior.
Different power cord
Reseat the RAM modules
Try each of the RAM modules individually
Disconnect all power and drain the board (power button for 30 seconds)
BIOS flash
Pull the SSD and put the old drive back in
Boot with Linux Mint live, and no drive in
Download and install all available Windows updates

The battery had a full charge when it came in for upgrade

What is the fix for this? I need to be able to charge the battery and run on external power without having to remove the battery every time.
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