Not sure that I understand your question/requirement.
Are you using Windows 10?
If so, CTRL + I > Ease of Access > Narrator will lead you to the Windows 10 built-in Narrator controls.
Yes, I use Windows 10. But what you are writing about is (as I understand) working the over way only. Reads aloud from the text - "Narrator is a screen reader that reads all the elements on screen, like text and buttons". I need the opposite - speech to text.
Your smartphone has pretty good TTS function. Put it close to the speaker, and keep quiet.
This is an incomplete solution, although it will work. However, I would prefer to have it directly on the computer. There does not have to be silence (others around me). The program has a clean, direct sound. In the group, I can listen in the headphones.
I would prefer something direct. Maybe some program loop from speakers to the microphone. Is something like that?